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From ZEV to HFCV – What’s the Difference Between Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Vehicles and Good Old Internal Combustion Engines

Expect to hear many of these quirky acronyms like BEVs and PHEVs as car makers switch to electrification. But do you know the difference between the two? And what exactly is an HEV?

There are brand new languages ​​and terms related to electric vehicles that drivers (and, more importantly, buyers) need to be familiar with so that they can make the best decisions when buying a new car.

Many car companies are working on a move to abandon the old loyal gasoline and diesel engines that favor battery-powered electric vehicles (BEVs). Volvo announced in March that it would phase out internal combustion engines (ICEs) and hybrid vehicles and become a fully electric company by 2030. In April Honda’s president announced that it would be 100% battery electric or hydrogen fuel-by 2040 Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).

Many car companies are working on a move to abandon old loyal petrol and diesel engines

Hyundai Motor, a major Korean automaker, is aiming for full electrification by 2040 and will be the first automaker to apply hydrogen fuel cell systems to all commercial vehicle models by 2028. .. car.

Chairman Chung said: “The vision of the Hyundai Motor Group is to apply hydrogen energy to all areas of our lives and industries, including our homes, workplaces and factories. The goal is to bring hydrogen to everyone, everyone, and everywhere soon. Is to be able to be used for. “

By the end of 2022, Australians are expected to be able to choose from 58 EV models, so let’s clarify the differences in the options for electric vehicles currently on the market.

HEV

Hybrid electric vehicle Is a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine combined with one or more electric motors that use the energy stored in the battery. Hybrid vehicles, often regarded as a stepping stone from an internal combustion engine to a purely electric vehicle, usually run at low speeds on the battery itself, but as soon as the vehicle needs to be speeded up, a gasoline / diesel engine is used. Starts to power the car.

Camera iconToyota Corolla Hybrid. credit: supply/ /supply

On some models, the HEV battery is recharged when the car slows down, not just the engine. This is called regenerative braking. HEVs are widely purchased in Australia because of their efficiency, affordability, and the fact that they do not need to be connected to an external power source for recharging.

The world’s first mass-produced hybrid car is the Toyota Prius, which has been a pioneer in hybrid technology since 1997. In the first half of 2021, Toyota sold 34,036 HEVs, accounting for more than 85% of all electric models sold in Australia.

Current models available in Australia:

  • Toyota Corolla Hybrid – Plus On Road from $ 27,395
  • Toyota Yaris Hybrid – Plus On Road from $ 29,090
  • Subaru XV Hybrid – Plus On Road from $ 35,490
  • Lexus NX300h – Plus On Road from $ 60,500

PHEV

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle It is similar to an HEV in that it uses a combination of petrol engine and battery power, but there are additional benefits to using an external source for a full recharge. In other words, depending on the battery level and the type of operation, it can be powered by the battery alone or by combining gasoline and electricity.

PHEVs typically consume more fuel than HEVs because they can travel a certain distance only on battery power.

Current models available in Australia:

  • Mitsubishi Eclipse Cross PHEV-Plus on-road from $ 46,490
  • Kia Niro PHEV S – Plus On Road from $ 46,590
  • Hyundai IONIQ Plug-in Hybrid-From $ 52,464 Plus On Road
  • BMW 330e PHEV – Plus On Road from $ 84,900

BEV

Battery-powered electric vehicle Or simply EV does not have a combustion engine. Instead, they are fully powered by an electric motor (or possibly a motor) that gets power from the battery pack. Larger battery capacity can provide a wider range (like a fuel tank), and some models, such as the Nissan Leaf e +, have a 22kWh larger battery than regular models. The EV will be recharged using the power of the wall or charging station.

Like HEVs and PHEVs, this type of EV runs well in urban driving with regenerative braking technology that recharges the battery each time the vehicle slows down.

The MG ZS EV is a fully electric compact SUV with no gasoline or other energy sources.
Camera iconThe MG ZS EV is a fully electric compact SUV with no gasoline or other energy sources. credit: supply

When charging an EV, there are multiple options, from the slowest AC charging to the faster DC charging. Hyundai claims that the new IONIQ 5 can be recharged from 10% to 80% in just 18 minutes using an 800V ultra-fast charger.

But charging time isn’t the only improvement over the years. EVs can now be driven even further. For example, 10 years ago, the Nissan LEAF had a cruising range of about 130km. Today, it has more than doubled over a range of 385km. The average EV range is estimated to be 440km by 2022 and 640km by 2028.

BEVs are more popular than plug-in hybrid vehicles in Australia, with 7248 units sold in the first half of 2021, while the PHEV category sold only 1440 units.

Current models available in Australia:

  • MG ZS EV – Plus On Road from $ 44,990
  • Hyundai Kona EV – Plus On Road from $ 59,339
  • Nissan LEAF – Plus On Road from $ 60,490
  • Tesla Model 3–62, $ 2,900 plus on-road
Nissan Leaf e +.
Camera iconNissan Leaf e +.
credit: supply

ice

Internal combustion engine

Unlike the previous BEV, PHEV, and HEV terms, the term ICE refers to the engine of the car itself, not the type of car.

An internal combustion engine burns gasoline or diesel to power a car’s motor. Fossil fuels are mixed with air to cause a contained explosion, which drives engine components to move wheels.

The chemical process behind ICE emits greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. In 2016, light passenger and commercial vehicles accounted for more than 11% of Australia’s total greenhouse gas emissions.

Internal combustion engines are better at using fuel over time, but the average fuel economy of gasoline and diesel passenger cars has not changed significantly since the numbers were first collected in 1963. For example, according to ABS data, last year’s average fuel economy was 11.1L / 100km in Australia, but in 1963 it was 11.4L / 100km.

Efficient example:

  • Audi A1 Sportback 1.0TFSI – 4.2L / 100km
  • Skoda Fabia – 4.5L / 100km
  • Peugeot 308 Touring Diesel-4.6L / 100km
  • Kia Picanto – 5.0L / 100km

Other related terms

ZEV-Zero Emission Vehicle

A wide range of categories, including vehicles that do not emit any harmful pollutants from the exhaust pipes. Battery-powered electric vehicles are an example of a ZEV. However, PHEVs or HEVs are not ZEVs.

FCV-Fuel Cell Vehicle

This is a vehicle powered by a fuel cell, a device that produces electricity when oxygen and the appropriate fuel (often hydrogen) are supplied.

HFCV-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle

The HFCV has one major difference from other EVSs, the HFCV itself produces power. Fuel cells mix hydrogen and air to generate electrical energy that powers motors. The only emission from the HFCV is the water vapor from the exhaust.

PFCV-Plug-in fuel cell vehicle

These vehicles combine the capabilities of a battery-powered electric vehicle (BEV) and a fuel cell-powered electric vehicle (FCEV).

MHEV-Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle

This is a petrol or diesel vehicle with a small motor that supports an internal combustion engine (ICE), leading to improved performance and efficiency.

REx – Range Extender Hybrid

These hybrids use only an electric motor to power the wheels, but a small petrol engine that is only used as a generator to recharge the battery pack.

SEV-Solar Electric Vehicle

Although less common, solar cars or solar electric vehicles are electric vehicles that are fully or significantly powered by direct solar energy.

Regenerative brake

When a gasoline or diesel vehicle slows down, it loses kinetic energy when the brakes are applied. In EV, when you step on the brake pedal, the electric motor is instructed to rotate in the reverse direction. Not only does this slow down the wheels, but it also reacquires kinetic energy and returns it to the battery for additional charging of the car.

Le / 100km

When measuring the fuel economy of a normal car, use the abbreviation L / 100km (the number of liters consumed per 100km of travel). For EVs, the abbreviation used is Le / 100km, which is equivalent to liters.

From ZEV to HFCV – What’s the Difference Between Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Vehicles and Good Old Internal Combustion Engines

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